The membranes were then incubated with anti mouse immunoglobulin G or anti rabb

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 The membranes were then incubated with anti mouse immunoglobulin G or anti rabb Empty The membranes were then incubated with anti mouse immunoglobulin G or anti rabb

Post  jy9202 on Mon Mar 31, 2014 7:17 am

Hence, although several in vestigations had already addressed the possibility of insulin based hormonal cross communication between flatworm parasites and mammalian hosts, it is still un clear to date whether Ivacaftor 臨床試験 host insulin at physiological con centrations indeed influences parasite development and metabolism or whether such effects are mediated by evolutionarily conserved insulin signalling systems of these parasites. In the present study, we concentrated on a cestode, E. multilocularis, the larval stage of which displays a strong organ tropism towards the liver where the highest insulin concentrations within mammals can be measured, Several independent lines of evidence clearly indicate that E. multilocularis larvae are responsive to exogenously added host insulin at physio logical concentrations.

First, 10 nM insulin significantly increased the production of metacestode vesicles from parasite stem cells as well as the re differentiation of protoscoleces towards metacestode vesicles, and also sig nificantly stimulated parasite stem cell proliferation in primary cell cultures and metacestode オーダー LBH589 vesicles, as mea sured by the incorporation of BrdU. Second, the uptake of radioactively labelled glucose by metacestode vesicles was significantly stimulated in the presence of 10 nM host insulin. Third, exogenously added host insulin clearly affected the phosphorylation profiles of components of the PI3K Akt signalling pathway in the metacestode. On the basis of these data, we propose that insulin constitutes an important host factor that influences the development and physiology of E.

multilocularis larvae within the liver. The observed effects LY2109761 msds were most striking for initial metaces tode development from stem cells, which could aid the parasite in establishing itself early during an infection, when it is most vulnerable to attacks by the host immune system, Compared to primary cells, somewhat lower effects were observed on the proliferation of mature metacestode vesicles, which could be due to the fact that this stage con tains significantly lower proportions of stem cells that are capable of proliferation than the primary culture system, On the other hand, given the important role of glycogen as the main energy source for larval cestode metabolism, the observed effects of host insulin on glucose uptake by E.

multilocu laris could be important for long term persistence of the parasite within the host. Whether the insulin stimulated re differentiation of protoscoleces towards the metacestode is important in vivo still remains to be determined. Protosco lex re differentiation in experimental secondary echinococ cosis or following accidental or surgery induced rupture of parasite cysts is a well described phenomenon and at least for E. granulosus it is thought that parasite persistence within the host is aided by re differentiation of existing pro toscoleces once the mother hydatid cyst experienced physical damage, In this regard, the influx of elevated concentrations of host insulin into ruptured parasite cysts, followed by increased re differentiation of protoscoleces, may well contribute to prolonged parasite survival. How ever, whether these mechanisms are also relevant to E. multiocularis infections is still not clear. In any case, the observed effects of 1 nM and 10 nM insulin on protoscolex re differentiation again demonstrate that E.

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