On the other hand, although RAD001 inhibited the downstream P70S6K phosphorylat

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 On the other hand, although RAD001 inhibited the downstream P70S6K phosphorylat Empty On the other hand, although RAD001 inhibited the downstream P70S6K phosphorylat

Post  huwan123456 on Mon May 12, 2014 6:49 am

Oncogenic BRAF may trigger a proinflammatory program in thyroid epithelial cells. Recently, we demon strated that preoperative blood neutrophil to lymphocyte buy Ivacaftor ratio, a surrogate marker for systemic inflammation, corre lated with tumor size in differentiated thyroid cancer. In this context, it remains controversial whether the inflamma tion is the cause or consequence in the tumorigenesis of thyroid cancer. Human cytomegalovirus is a member of the Herpesviridae family of viruses. Patients with CMV infec tion have variable clinical manifestations, from no disease in healthy hosts to congenital CMV syndrome in neonates. Meningoencephalitis, retinitis, pneumonitis, myocar ditis, hepatitis, enterocolitis, and disseminated disease may be seen in immunocompromised patients and transplant recipients.

After a primary infection, which is generally asymptomatic in immunocompetent persons, CMV estab lishes latency and persists in its host. CMV seroprevalence increases LBH589 supplier with age. In most studies, seroprevalence reached 60% or more in individuals older than 50 years. Re cently, a new entity of infection, called microinfection, has been used to describe the low levels of CMV infection found in inflammatory diseases and certain cancers. Through mechanisms involving oncogenic transformation, oncomodulation, and tumor cell immune evasion, CMV in fection has been implicated in several cancer types. It has been shown that CMV infection may induce a prosur vival state of latently infected cells via activation of the MAPK signaling pathway.

Sensitive techniques have been developed to detect the presence of CMV genome or antigens in specific tissues. In a small series, CMV was the only virus present in thy roid tumors. In another study examining herpes virus tissue distribution, CMV was detected in the thy roid gland in three of the eight autopsies. These findings indicate that the thyroid gland is one of the res LY2109761 代理店 ervoirs of latent human CMV infection. Considering that the MAPK pathway is the most common genetic alter ation in thyroid cancer and may be activated by CMV infection, we hypothesized that CMV infection may be involved in the pathogenesis of thyroid cancer. In the present study, we set out to examine the viral DNA and protein in papillary thyroid cancer tissues, and to correl ate with the status of tumor BRAF mutation.

Methods Clinical samples Tissue samples were collected under an institutional review board approved tissue procurement protocol after written informed consent was obtained. A total of 40 patients undergoing total thyroidectomy for papillary thyroid cancer and 5 patients undergoing lobectomy for follicular adenoma were included in this study. Tumor tissues from the center of the lesions and corresponding normal thyroid tissues from the contra lateral lobes of the same patients were obtained. All tumor tissue samples were carefully dissected to exclude surround ing normal tissue. Tissue samples were snap frozen immedi ately in liquid nitrogen and stored at −80 C. The tissue diagnosis was confirmed by frozen sections. DNA extraction DNA was extracted from frozen tumor tissues using the QIAamp DNA mini kit ac cording to the manufacturers instructions.

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