The acetylation of these residues is of great interest as a target for inhibiti

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 The acetylation of these residues is of great interest as a target for inhibiti Empty The acetylation of these residues is of great interest as a target for inhibiti

Post  wangqian on Wed May 14, 2014 5:51 am

Of note, we did not observe major differ ences in the ratio of live cells between DMSO and TNF treatments, suggesting that HIV induced cell toxicity is not a substantial issue. Furthermore, these findings collectively support the idea that non productive RGH infection is established early and permanently, such that TNF treatment applied after the infection can no longer permanently alter the proportion MAPK リン酸化反応 of non productively infected cells. Discussion Despite extensive knowledge of individual mechanisms of HIV 1 transcriptional regulation, our understanding of the critical determinants for HIV 1 latency establishment in newly infected cells is limited. This knowledge gap is largely due to the inability to accurately identify latently infected cells early post infection, and in their native state.

To circumvent these road blocks, we and others have recent developed double labeled HIV 1 vectors incorporating constitutive markers of infection. Initial studies purchase MK-1775 with these models have revealed that a large proportion of HIV 1 infections result in a direct latent state, however the mechanisms by which these infections form remains unknown. In this study we used a doubly labeled HIV 1 latency model to show that the cellular activation state and NFκB activity around the time of infection, but not viral integration site, are important for regulating direct non productive infections in Jurkat T cells. Although primary CD4 T cells are considered to be the gold standard for HIV 1 latency models, we note a number of technical issues precluding the precise and unbiased evaluation of direct non productive RGH infection in rest ing CD4 T cells.

Nevertheless, we previously observed that RGH infection of activated primary CD4 T cells from three donors results in a high degree of direct non productive オーダー MS-275 infection, comparable to Jurkat cells. Furthermore, another group also noted a high degree of latency in activated primary CD4 T cells. This suggests that activated primary CD4 T cell infections may be accurately recapitulated in Jurkat cells. Thus, the results obtained with Jurkat cells in this study are likely to hold in primary T cells, especially if primary cells must be activated in order to render them permissive to infection. Previous reports have implicated integration site variabil ity as a determinant for HIV 1 latency.

Most notably, latency was correlated with integration into gene deserts, highly transcribed genes and alphoid repeats. However, high throughput analysis of HIV 1 integration sites indicates that integra tions into such regions are highly disfavored. Instead, most proviruses are located within actively transcribed genes that are enriched for histone marks associated with active chromatin, and depleted for marks associated with repressive chromatin. We speculate that latency models using cellular activation and long term culturing to identify and establish latency could select for the most strongly repressed latent proviruses, thereby resulting in an over representation of such disfavored inte gration locations. Our analysis of proviral locations in RGH infected Jurkat cells shows little evidence for integration sites regulating the difference between red and yellow cells.


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