HeLa37 cells were plated in a 48 well tray and triplicate wells were infected w

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 HeLa37 cells were plated in a 48 well tray and triplicate wells were infected w Empty HeLa37 cells were plated in a 48 well tray and triplicate wells were infected w

Post  wangqian on Wed May 14, 2014 5:56 am

Compari sons between sets of integration sites for statistical significance are performed by calculating Wald type test statistics, which are then tested using Chi Square methods. MiRNA represents a class of small RNA ranged from 21 24 nts, which plays important regulatory roles in animal, plant, and fungi. Virus encoded mapk 阻害剤 miRNAs were ini tially identified from Epstein Barr viruses. Since then, increasing virus encoded miRNAs have been identified. Most of these miRNAs were reported in DNA viruses such as Herpes and Polyoma viruses, but rarely in RNA vi ruses. Because of the rapid development of deep se quencing technology which is much more sensitive and quantitative than the conventional cDNA clone sequencing method, more RNA virus derived miRNAs have been dis covered especially from HIV 1, WNV and BLV.

Most miRNAs repress gene expression through target ing the 3 UTR of mRNA in cytoplasmic RISC for trans lation repression Linifanib 溶解度 or mRNA degradation. It has been revealed that 5 UTR and exons could also be the targets of miRNAs for translation repression. In addition, miRNAs could also enter the nucleus and modu late gene expression at transcriptional level. These findings reveal multiple action modes are exploited by miRNAs for gene expression regulation. MiRNAs play important roles in the interaction be tween parasites and their hosts. Cellular miRNAs could affect the viral replication, latency and mediate antiviral defense. For example, miR 122 that is enriched in the liver plays a key role in the accumulation of viral RNAs of hepatitis C viruses.

A cellular miRNA effectively restricts the accumulation of the retrovirus primate foamy virus type 1 in supplier LY3009104 human cells. Our group re ported that several miRNAs from resting human CD4 T cells repress the translation of viral proteins and contrib ute to the latency of HIV 1. Conversely, viral miRNAs could facilitate viral infection through reducing the viral antigens or impairing the host antiviral immune response. For instances, SV40 miR S1 down modulates the produc tion of the viral T antigen, an early protein which is not required during late infection. An EBV encoded miRNA miR BART5 targets the proapoptotic factor PUMA to promote host cell survival. Further more, an hCMV miRNA, miR UL112 1, was reported to inhibit the expression of the stress induced ligand MICB and enable hCMV to escape from the immune surveil lance by NK cells.

It has been reported that human immunodeficiency virus type 1 also encode several miRNAs and other small RNAs. Bennasser et al. first performed a computational prediction on HIV 1 encoded miRNAs and found five pre miRNAs candidates. Subse quently, several groups identified HIV 1 encoded miR NAs from the nef or the TAR element. Through the new generation sequencing method, a number of HIV 1 encoded small RNAs were discovered, some of which exhibit the features of miRNA or small interfering RNA. These HIV 1 derived small RNAs have been shown to modulate the cellular and or viral gene expression. A nef derived miRNA miR N367 could block HIV 1 Nef expression in vitro.

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